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CJC-F Announcements, CJC-F Insights, CJC-F Understanding Forensics, CLD Forensics, Uncategorized

Doping, which refers to the illegal use of substances to enhance sporting performance, is a perennial concern in competitive sports. Interestingly, Singapore has had a number of doping cases over the years. For instance, in 2012, seven out of eight athletes tested positive for having consumed prohibited substances during the Singapore National Bodybuilding and Physique Sports Championship.

There are various substances that are abused by sportsmen, with some being more commonly used than others. To this end, the World Anti-Doping Agency (“WADA”) has promulgated the 2022 WADA Prohibited List, which contains ten categories of banned substances which may (1) be prohibited in-competition or at all times, and (2) be specified or unspecified. 


This article will elaborate on four types of commonly abused substances in sports, namely: 

  1. anabolic steroids; 
  2. supplements; 
  3. erythropoietins (“EPO”); 
  4. high growth hormone (“HGH”). 


1) Anabolic steroids 

Anabolic steroids and diuretics are the most commonly abused substances. So what exactly are they, and why do athletes consume them? 


Anabolic steroids are a special type of steroid that stimulates muscle growth, and they are typically consumed by athletes who need to quickly build muscle or speed up recovery from injuries. Examples of athletes who have been known to consume such steroids are professional body-builders and weightlifters. 


Anabolic steroids imitate the properties of naturally occurring hormones such as testosterone, given their similar chemical composition. This means that the steroid can activate the body’s testosterone receptors to induce similar or even stronger effects brought about by natural testosterone. One of the key effects testosterone has is to increase muscle mass and boost energy, making this substance an attractive one for athletes who need to build bodies faster in preparation for competitions. 


While one of the key reasons behind prohibiting the consumption of these substances is to ensure a level playing field for everyone in competitions, it is also imperative to understand the potential harm that consumption can bring to athletes. Regular consumption of anabolic steroids has been known to increase the risk of hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia amongst the athletes who imbibe them. Athletes may also suffer from acne, alopecia and even blood clots which increases stroke risk. 


High testosterone levels, on the other hand, are linked to psychiatric complications like psychosis and mood disorders. This explains why doctors avoid prescribing steroids when a patient has psychiatric symptoms as the patient may develop even more severe conditions. One such condition is systemic lupus erythematosus, which is a disease that causes the immune system to attack the body’s tissues and results in tissue damage in the patient’s body.


2) Supplements

Some supplements are considered as prohibited substances under the 2022 WADA Prohibited List. The term “supplements” covers a broad category of products, including but not limited to sports foods (protein powders/drinks, energy bars, sports drinks, etc), medical supplements (vitamins, probiotics, minerals, etc), ergogenic substances (caffeine, creatinine, bicarbonate, beta-analine or nitrate), natural products (herbs, roots, etc), weight loss supplements and anabolic supplements.


Dietary supplements may also be prohibited substances – these include stimulants such as ephedrine, methylhexanamine, sibutramine (an appetite suppressant that was banned in Singapore since 2010 due to its effect of increasing risks of heart attacks) and 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA). Some of these supplements may also contain other prohibited substances such as anabolic steroids and clenbuterol (a beta-2 agonist approved for asthma in some countries which also has anabolic and fat-burning properties at higher doses).


What is especially tricky about this particular class of prohibited substances is that athletes often consume these supplements not knowing that it is prohibited. In a report on elite university-level athletes, it was found that one third of the athletes had little to no knowledge of the supplement(s) that they were taking. Common reasons cited included the assumption of safety due to the wide availability of the supplements, as well as trust in the people who introduced such supplements to them (such as family members or their coaches). 


This was unfortunately what happened in a case involving a local para-athlete. Khairi Bin Ishak was tested positive for methandienone (an anabolic steroid) during a routine out-of-competition test. According to him, he had purchased a protein isolate product from a Facebook page of a Malaysia-based company, not knowing that it contained substances which were prohibited. However, his lack of knowledge is not a defence for having violated an anti-doping rule. This is because anti-doping rules are strict liability in nature, and they apply regardless of whether the doping occurred intentionally or unintentionally – as long as someone is found with prohibited substances and/or at least one prohibited substance is found in a supplement, it is a violation. Consequently, the positive result of methandienone alone led to Khairi Bin Ishak being disqualified from the 2018 Commonwealth Games. 


This case serves as a cautionary tale for athletes to be aware of the ingredients contained in their supplements. Manufacturers’ assurances may not be reliable, and athletes should always check their supplements with qualified professionals to ensure that they do not contain prohibited substances. Inadvertent doping can happen, so always err on the side of caution!


3) Erythropoietins

The third most commonly abused substance used by athletes is erythropoietins. EPOs are erythropoietin receptor agonists, which include darbepoetin and other EPO mimetic agents. EPOs allow more oxygen to be transported to muscle cells, thus helping athletes increase their endurance in competitive sports.


Synthetic EPO substances have structures that are different from natural EPOs produced in the body. Nevertheless, like endogenous EPO, they stimulate the production of red blood cells (“RBC”) in the bone marrow by stimulating erythroid progenitor cells, which in turn increases erythropoiesis (the production of RBCs) and ultimately regulates the concentration of RBC and haemoglobin in the blood through a negative feedback cycle. RBCs are responsible for the transport of oxygen throughout the body, so having a higher RBC count is useful as it can increase the athletes’ stamina. EPO also helps to maintain the RBCs and protects them from injury or being destroyed. 


However, abuse of EPO will have a negative effect on the body. Short-term effects include weight loss, insomnia, and headaches or dizziness, but there are long-term effects as well. This is because EPO increases RBC count, such that long-term use in healthy adults can increase the risk of stroke, heart attacks and blood clots in the lungs. In addition, EPO abuse may also increase blood pressure which may damage organs such as the heart and kidneys.  


The use of EPO by athletes is less common in Asian countries and is largely used only in endurance bearing sports such as cycling. The most well-known case of EPO doping is that of Lance Armstrong, who won six Tour De France competitions before being stripped of all his titles in 2012, after he admitted to using EPO to boost his performance. Interestingly, Lance Armstrong had never failed a single doping test in his entire career which led many to think that the anti-doping efforts by the International Olympic Committee are easily manipulated. 


4) Human Growth Hormone

Human growth hormone, as its name suggests, is a growth hormone that is associated with growth function. HGH is a peptide (small protein) hormone naturally produced by the pituitary gland, and is involved in many crucial physiological processes such as stimulating growth of bone and collagen, facilitating turnover of muscle and regulating fat and carbohydrate metabolism. 


It is not difficult to see how useful synthetic HGH can be when applied to treat growth disorders and deficiency-state diseases such as Turner syndrome, chronic renal insufficiency and short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) deficiency. HGH is also highly efficient in increasing muscle mass and power and regulating metabolic (fat and carbohydrate) processes. In the context of doping, HGH is particularly attractive because of its efficiency, the absence of severe side effects if well-dosed and difficulty of detection. 

However, if not well-dosed, HGH may cause severe conditions such as nerve damage, swelling and high cholesterol levels. Diabetes and tumour risks also increase with HGH usage. Further, as HGH is administered via injection so as to prevent degradation by the gastrointestinal tract, there is a risk of cross-infection if syringes are non-sterile or contaminated, leading to conditions such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis. 


What is interesting about HGH is the difficulty of detecting the substance. This is because these growth hormones typically have a very short half-life in blood and low concentration in urine. Furthermore, since synthetic HGH is nearly identical to HGH produced naturally by the human body, it is also difficult to differentiate the two. Successful detection of HGH can be achieved through blood tests. 


Like EPO, this substance is not commonly abused in Singapore or Asian countries. It is more commonly found to be abused in Western countries, where endurance sports such as cycling and running are more popular and prominent.



It is hoped that this article has helped to shed some light on the four most commonly abused substances in sports.

Elite level athletes must always keep in mind that doping is a strict liability offence, which means that ignorance cannot be pleaded as a defence should their sample be found with a banned substance. Thus, athletes should always stay informed about the list of banned or prohibited substances to ensure that they have not unwittingly breached the WADA Code, so as to prevent any unfortunate accidents which may lead to possible sanctions.

*The views and opinions expressed in this article do not constitute legal advice and solely belong to the author and do not reflect the opinions and beliefs of the NUS Criminal Justice Club or its affiliates.


Fredrik Lauritzen (2022). Dietary Supplements as a Major Cause of Anti-doping Rule Violations. Front. Sports Act. Living, Sec. Anti-doping Sciences

Sport Singapore. Supplements. Government of Singapore. Last accessed on 25 October 2022 from:

Geyer, H., Mareck-Engelke, U., Reinhart, U., Thevis, M., and Schänzer, W. (2000). Positive doping cases with norandrosterone after application of contaminated nutritional supplements. Dtsch. Z. Sportmed. 51, 378–382.

Martínez-Sanz JM, Sospedra I, Ortiz CM, Baladía E, Gil-Izquierdo A, Ortiz-Moncada R. Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports. Nutrients. 2017 Oct 4;9(10):1093. doi: 10.3390/nu9101093. PMID: 28976928; PMCID: PMC5691710.

Prather ID, Brown DE, North P, Wilson JR. Clenbuterol: a substitute for anabolic steroids? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995 Aug;27(8):1118-21. PMID: 7476054.

Kozhuharov VR, Ivanov K, Ivanova S. Dietary Supplements as Source of Unintentional Doping. Biomed Res Int. 2022 Apr 22;2022:8387271. doi: 10.1155/2022/8387271. PMID: 35496041; PMCID: PMC9054437.

Health Direct. Human growth hormone. Government of Australia. Last accessed on 25 October 2022 from:

Saugy M et al (2006). Human growth hormone doping in sport. Br J Sports Med, 40(Suppl 1): i35–i39. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2006.027573

National Institute of Drug Abuse (February 2018). Steroids and Other Appearance and Performance Enhancing Drugs (APEDs) Research Report. Last accessed on 25 October 2022 from:

NHS (13 April 2022). Anabolic Steroid Misuse: Instroduction. Last accessed on 25 October 2022 from:

National Institute of Drug Abuse (February 2018). Steroids and Other Appearance and Performance Enhancing Drugs (APEDs) Research Report

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World Anti-Doping Agency. World Anti-Doping Code: International Standard Prohibited List 2021. Last accessed on 25 October 2022 from:

Suresh S, Rajvanshi PK, and Noguchi CT (2020). The Many Facets of Erythropoietin Physiologic and Metabolic Response. Front. Physiol., Sec. Red Blood Cell Physiology.

Kien Vinh Trinh, Dion Diep, Kevin Jia Qi Chen, Le Huang, and Oleksiy Gulenko (2020). Effect of erythropoietin on athletic performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2020; 6(1): e000716. doi: 10.1136/bmjsem-2019-000716

Slater G, Tan B, Teh KC. Dietary supplementation practices of Singaporean athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Sep;13(3):320-32. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.13.3.320. PMID: 14669932.

Tian HH, Ong WS, Tan CL (2009). Nutritional supplement use among

university athletes in Singapore. Singapore Medical Journal, 50(2):165-172.


Authors’ Biographies

Javan Seow is a 4th Year Undergraduate at the National University of Singapore. He is also currently doing his final year project with the NUS Forensic Science Laboratory. He aspires to join the Singapore Police Force after he graduates. 

Celine Cheow is a recent graduate from NUS Pharmacy. As a project manager of the forensic toxicology team in CJC-F in AY21/22, she guides the team with her knowledge of drugs, and edits articles relating to forensic toxicology. 

Wong Wai Xin is a 3rd Year Undergraduate from NUS Chemistry. She is interested in practical applications of Chemistry in everyday life, and aspires to join the Ministry of Education as a teacher after graduation. 

Zaher Wahab (“Zee”) is a Sophomore at the SUSS School of Law and is also a Doping Control Officer with Anti-Doping Singapore. He looks forward to practising Criminal Law & Sports Law when called to the Bar. Currently, Zee serves as President of the Singapore Chapter of the Asian Law Students Association and strives for greater interaction and collaboration among students from the 3 Law Schools. This is his second published article on Anti-Doping & Sports Law.

CJC-F Announcements, CJC-F Events, CJC-F News, CLD Forensics

After much anticipation, CJC-F held its first in-person Welcome Event on 19th September 2022. It was a very exciting time as both previous and new members alike were able to meet their club mates, get to know each other, and embark on this shared journey of exploring our interest in forensic science together.


CJC-F History, Goal and Project Hierarchy

The event began with a detailed explanation of the history and journey of CJC-F given by our student Director Alyssa Phua and Vice Director Ellione Chow.

It was truly spectacular to hear from them how CJC-F began as a single event under the umbrella of the Criminal Justice Club, and grew rapidly over the past 2 years to a well-established interest group with 39 published research articles and 4 highly publicized external events. Next, members discussed future goals of the club as well as contributions that members hope to make. The sharing provided all  members with an excellent understanding of the values, mission and goals of CJC-F.


Team Lead Sharing

After this, the team leads were invited to briefly introduce their teams as well as their plans in the upcoming academic year. It was an extremely engaging sharing session with all team leads doing their best to recruit members for their teams!

Ice-Breaker Bingo

Next up was a fun game of Ice-Breaker Bingo! Members were each given a bingo sheet and had to find people who had certain funny or silly experiences, items, or characteristics to sign off on the corresponding bingo boxes. These included having filmed a TikTok in public, being able to touch your tongue to your nose or having slept in Prof Stella’s class – which, for some reason, was a box that no one would sign! 😉

While the experience of 25 people frantically going around the room trying to obtain signatures was a chaotic one indeed, the ice-breaker was ultimately a resounding success, as members ended up getting to know one another better and on a deeper level.

Mass Game – Clue Finding

After the Ice-Breaker Bingo was a clue-finding mass game. A crime scenario was introduced (hypothetical, of course!). Then, members were divided into smaller teams and tasked with finding clue envelopes that were hidden on the 4th and 5th floors of the building in 20 minutes. Each of the envelopes contained either evidence, testimony, or action cards. Evidence and testimony cards could be used to reconstruct the crime, while action cards could be used to steal, exchange, or bomb other teams’ clues.

Once the rules were explained, an action-filled 20 minutes ensued, in which members put on their detective hats, ran around, and even accidentally got locked in a stairwell.

Once members gathered back in the room, they were given 10 minutes to discuss and come up with their interpretations of the crime as well as play any action cards obtained to gain more information. Every team was then given the chance to put forward their version of the crime.

The entire game was immensely entertaining and drew plenty of smiles and laughter. However, it also taught members the importance of evidence and the influence of available context on evidence. It was fascinating to watch the same pieces of evidence being interpreted differently based on the information available to the team.


Masterclass in Forensic Science and Legal Systems

Last up on the agenda was the long-awaited masterclasses in forensic science and the legal system. Zheng Yen Phua, who is currently a doctoral researcher working as a teaching assistant in the forensic science program at NUS, took the stage for the forensic science portion of the class. He led members through multiple topics that were integral to forensic science such as blood spatter analysis, DNA profiling through STRs (short tandem repeats), fingerprinting, and forensic medicine. The forensic science masterclass ended with the examination of the real-life Stirling Road Murder case and the demonstration of how forensic evidence was integral to the conviction of the killer.

Finally, the event was concluded with Alyssa presenting the final masterclass on a brief introduction to Singapore’s criminal legal system.

This sharing session was incredibly insightful for the non-law students in particular, who got a glimpse into the basics of the two legal traditions, the hierarchy of courts in Singapore’s legal system and the trial process. Alyssa also explained the difference in the standard of proof for the defense and prosecution in a criminal trial – a concept that the author found particularly thought-provoking – which is based on the premise of “innocent until proven guilty”.



In short, the entire event was a truly enjoyable and informative way to spend our Monday afternoon before the struggles of recess week!

*The views and opinions expressed in this article do not constitute legal advice and solely belong to the author and do not reflect the opinions and beliefs of the NUS Criminal Justice Club or its affiliates.

Authors’ Biography

  • Avanti Balaji (Year 2 Psychology Major)

Avanti Balaji is a second-year NUS undergraduate current majoring in psychology. Given her deep interest in the roles and real-life applications of psychology, Avanti joined the CJC-F to gain more exposure and learn about the fields of law, forensics, and their relation to psychology. In pursuit of this interest, she also intends to minor in forensic science. She is currently part of the Forensic Science Conference planning committee as well as a member of the team focusing on forensic psychology.


CJC-F Announcements, CJC-F Insights, CLD Forensics
Olympian. World record holder. First male swimmer to earn Olympic and World Championship gold medals for every freestyle distance from 200 to 1500 metres and dubbed the “greatest freestyle swimmer of all time” by NBC Sports. These facts clearly point to an athlete of exemplary talent and tenacity; a true “shark” in the pool.

But who is he? He is none other than Sun Yang, the same Chinese athlete who was issued a reprimand in 2020 and sanctioned by the world swimming body, FINA, for (a) refusing to sign paperwork required in the doping control process and (b) refusing to submit samples of his blood as required by an Anti-Doping Organisation (ADO). But which anti-doping rules did Sun Yang violate? Isn’t doping about the consumption of prohibited substances to boost an athlete’s performance?

This article seeks to clarify:
  1. What anti-doping rules are;
  2. Who sets them;
  3. What constitutes doping in sports; and
  4. How urine and/or blood samples are collected by an ADO.

What are anti-doping rules and who set them?
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1999 to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against the use of drugs in sports. In line with the purpose of an anti-doping programme – which is “to protect the athlete’s fundamental right to participate in doping-free sport and thus promote health, fairness and equality for athletes worldwide” – the WADA created the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC), which is akin to a global rule-book for administering the anti-doping movement.

The WADC prescribes a set of punishments which applies to every athlete who flouts any of the 11 anti-doping rules or Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs), as they are known in the doping circles. Since WADA’s primary role is to develop, harmonise and coordinate anti-doping rules and policies across all sports and countries, this means that the same set of punishments apply to all atheletes worldwide. All recognised National Olympic Committees and International Federations under the IOC’s ambit are signatories to the WADC.
What constitutes doping?
ADRVs occur when an athlete or athlete support personnel (e.g. coach/trainer/team doctor) commits a doping offence when his/her urine or blood sample returns from the laboratory with an Adverse Analytical Finding. Should he/she be found guilty, there will be consequences or sanctions to that person.
There are 11 ADRVs in total.

It is important to note that the principle of strict liability applies to all anti-doping violations. This means that it is not necessary for the athlete to have intended to use the substance for him/her to be found guilty. Regardless of whether there was truly an intention to cheat or not, the athlete will be held responsible for any prohibited substance which is found in their body.

However, the degree of fault will be taken into account when determining the punishment the athlete will receive. An athlete may typically receive a period of ineligibility from competing as the punishment and the period of ineligibility could vary depending on the degree of fault. For instance, if the athlete is found to bear no fault or negligence, there could very well be no period of ineligibility for the athlete. If found to bear no significant fault or negligence, they could be rendered ineligible to compete for up to 2 years.
How are urine and/or blood samples collected by an ADO?
Every in-competition or out-of-competition testing begins with the provision of a urine and/or blood sample by the athlete. This is done under the strict supervision of a Doping Control Officer (DCO), who is of the same gender as the athlete.

During the process of testing, the athlete will urinate into the sample collection vessel right in front of the DCO so that the DCO has a clear view that the urine comes from the body of the athlete and not from any other source. The athlete will take the necessary steps to remove any clothing which may impede the line of sight of the DCO.

Similarly, for blood samples, the athlete typically rolls up his/her sleeves so that the instruments used will not be impeded. For this reason, DCOs work in pairs so that the other DCO (known as the Lead DCO or supervising officer) can act as witness to the entire process and record any anomalies in the process.

There is only 1 standard testing regime used to collect/analyse an athlete’s urine sample and the steps are as follows:
  1. Athlete selection – An athlete may be selected for testing at any time and place (e.g. whilst at home/ at the office/at his training venue or at the competition venue)
  2. Notification – A Doping Control Officer (DCO) will notify the athlete of his/her selection and reads them their rights and responsibilities. The DCO will then follow the athlete closely, to wherever he/she goes (warm down / medal ceremony / press conference / medical treatment etc).
  3. Reporting to Doping Control Room (DCR) – The athlete should report to the DCR as soon as he discharges his other responsibilities, as above.
  4. Sample collection equipment – The athlete will be given a minimum of 3 sealed sample collection vessels and kits to choose from. If he/she is unhappy with the chosen vessel or kit, he/she may request another to his/her satisfaction.
  5. Provision of sample – The athlete will then provide a urine sample under direct observation of a DCO of the same gender.
  6. Sample requirements – A minimum of 90ml of urine is required for urine samples. If the sample that is provided is not 90ml, the athlete may be asked to wait 1 hour before providing an additional sample. This additional sample will then be mixed with the earlier sample.
  7. The athlete will split the urine sample into Bottle A (minimum 60ml) and Bottle B (minimum 30ml).
  8. The athlete will then seal the bottles according to DCO’s instructions.
  9. The DCO will then measure the specific gravity of the sample to ensure that it is not too diluted to be analysed by the WADA accredited laboratory. The minimum is 1.005.
  10. The athlete will be asked to check and confirm that the information listed on the Doping Control Form is correct. This includes but not limited to his/her contact details, the medications / supplements / blood transfusion that he has had in the last 7 days.
  11. The urine samples will then be sent to WADA accredited laboratories for analysis.

If the athlete is found to have a prohibited substance in his sample, he/she will be invited to the testing laboratory where his/her sample from Bottle B will be opened in his/her presence and analysed. If the analysis from his/her Bottle B sample confirms the initial Adverse Analytical Finding (usually it does since it is from the same sample provided by the athlete on that particular day/time), the case will then be referred to the next stage, which is referred to as Results Management.

The athlete in question will then likely appear before a Disciplinary Hearing convened by the ADO and his/her National Sports Association (NSA). With possible assistance from his/her counsel, the athlete will now need to prove on a balance of probabilities that it is possible and plausible (i.e not a mere speculation) that there could have been an act of sabotage, manipulation, contamination, pollution or accidental use and that he/she did not knowingly commit the ADRV. The athlete has the option of choosing whether he/she would like to be legally represented.

Where possible, the athlete could list the possible source of the prohibited substance (e.g. adulterated meat) or even highlight any departure from the international standards that could possibly have contributed to the AAF.

Following which, the athlete may reach an agreement to conclude the case IF he proves his case successfully. There are 2 types of agreements – the results management agreement and the case resolution agreement:

If the athlete in question wishes to contest the charges, the case will proceed to the Court of Arbitration for Sports (CAS), as wase the case for Sun Yang.

What is CAS?  
CAS is an institution independent of any sports organisation which provides for services in order to facilitate the settlement of sports-related disputes through arbitration or mediation by means of procedural rules adapted to the specific needs of the sports world.

Created in 1984 and located in Lausanne, Switzerland, CAS has 300 arbitrators from 87 countries, chosen for their specialist knowledge in arbitration and sports law.

It should be noted that the award pronounced by CAS is final and binding on parties. It is enforced in accordance with the New York Convention which has more than 125 signatories.

What actually happened in Sun Yang’s case?
It started out like any other routine Out-Of-Competition Test (OOCT). Somewhere during the sample collection, Sun Yang noticed that one of the members of the Anti-Doping team was taking pictures of him. He immediately asked for the DCO’s Accreditation Card, to ascertain his identity but was rebuffed. This led Sun Yang to suspect that the testing personnel did not possess proper credentials and thus, his refusal to cooperate further. In anger, Sun Yang also smashed the vials containing samples of his blood which had been taken earlier.

As the test was authorised by the International Swimming body, FINA, a tribunal was convened to discuss the manner in which the sample collection had taken place. It concluded with the finding that “any blood sample collected without proper authorisation cannot be considered a sample and therefore, there was no anti-doping rule violated.”

However, WADA did not agree with FINA’s decision and appealed to CAS. A panel of three arbitrators then unanimously found Sun Yang guilty of refusing to cooperate with the DCO and of refusing to provide a sample. Following this, Sun Yang was issued an 8 year ban from swimming.

However, following accusations that Sun Yang’s testimony was lost in translation during the 2019 trial, CAS convened a new panel of arbitrators who then handed a 4 year 3 month ban to Sun Yang thereby ruling him out of the Tokyo 2020 Olympics and possibly ending his swimming career.

But… what happened to Joseph Schooling in August 2022?
On 30th August 2022, news broke that 2016 Olympic Gold medallist and national swimmer, Joseph Isaac Schooling confessed to smoking cannabis during an overseas training stint in preparation for the 31st South-East Asian Games.

Whilst there was a huge public uproar about Schooling’s smoking of cannabis in anti-drug Singapore, the question remains: did Joseph commit an ADRV?

The simple answer is no as there was no mention of any AAF from the SEA Games swimming competition. This means that Joseph was either not tested during the Games (the Games organisers have neither confirmed nor denied this) or he was tested and his test(s) came back negative.

Either way, this means that he was never caught with a prohibited substance (cannabis) in his urine during any in-competition testing conducted recently and thus, does not face any ban or sanction from competition. In fact, the news of his smoking of cannabis only broke because he made a confession to the Central Narcotics Bureau just before submitting to a random urine test under CNB’s watchful eyes. The test came back negative for all known prohibited drugs, including cannabis.                

Whilst this confession may be evidence of a breach of Article 2.2 of the WADA Code i.e. the “use” of a prohibited substance, it is only applicable if and only if there was evidence that the “use” occurred in-competition during the SEA Games.

One must bear in mind that cannabis is indeed a prohibited substance as per WADA’s prohibited list but only in-competition. This means that if Schooling had smoked cannabis a couple of days prior to any anti-doping test during the Games, his sample would have definitely been flagged as AAF as the single usage of cannabis can be detected up to 3 days after one’s last use. Therefore, it is this author’s firm belief that Schooling only smoked cannabis during the R & R period before his return to Singapore, after competing in the SEA Games.

His NSA, the Singapore Swimming Association and the Singapore National Olympic Council are expected to reprimand him for conduct unbecoming of an elite athlete and sports icon. But, to reiterate, it is highly unlikely that he will be facing a ban from competition since none of his urine samples from in-competition testing contained prohibited substances.

However, as Schooling is currently a conscript with the Singapore Armed Forces (“SAF”), he will be dealt with in accordance with Military Law. From recent news reports, we learn that Schooling will be subjected to 6 months of supervised urine tests and will no longer be allowed to take leave from his military duties to compete in overseas competitions.

Hence, whilst Schooling faces no immediate anti-doping bans from swimming competitions, it seems unlikely that Schooling will feature in 2023’s Asian Games in Hangzhou, China and the 32nd SEA Games in Phnom Penh, Cambodia since the SAF ban will prevent him from taking leave from military duties to compete in future overseas competitions thereby pushing the pause button on his swimming career.

The anti-doping movement exists to keep sports on a level playing field for all athletes. Hence, the strict enforcement and the constant and regular testing of athletes in and out of competition keeps elite sports competitive but fair. Nevertheless, athletes should always be aware of their rights and responsibilities as elite athletes and be guided by the strict liability rule that governs the anti-doping movement for a small mis-step can spell the end of their sporting careers.

*The views and opinions expressed in this article do not constitute legal advice and solely belong to the author and do not reflect the opinions and beliefs of the NUS Criminal Justice Club or its affiliates.

Authors’ Biographies
Zaher Bin Wahab (“Zee”) is a Sophomore at the SUSS School of Law and also serves as a Doping Control Officer with Anti-Doping Singapore. He looks forward to practising Community Law (Criminal, Family and Sports Law) when called to the Bar. Concurrently, serves as President of the Asian Law Students Association S’pore (ALSA SG) and strives for greater interaction and collaboration between students from the 3 Law Schools in Singapore. This is his first published article.

Alyssa Phua is a fourth year NUS undergraduate pursuing her double degree in Law and Business. As a strong believer in the need to promote greater appreciation of forensic evidence, she founded CJC Forensics (CJC-F) in 2020. As the director of CJC-F, she directs, coordinates and oversees all activities, events and projects.

CJC-F, CJC-F Announcements, CJC-F Case Commentaries, CLD Interest Pieces
CJC-F takes us through the use of blood analysis, fingerprinting, and odontology which ensured the accused’s conviction of murder.

In the early hours of 1 July 2007, the accused’s body was discovered at the ground of Block 181 Stirling Road. Paramedics pronounced her dead at the scene. Two days later, the accused surrendered himself to the police.

The night before her death, the deceased went drinking with her friends at a pub, staying there until 4 am. Around the same time, the accused contacted a mutual friend and told him that she was drunk. The friend then conveyed her message to the accused, whereupon the accused went to find the deceased.

On finding the deceased inebriated, the accused became angry and began to assault her. He dragged her to the top of Block 181 before causing her to fall over the parapet wall onto the ground below.


*AR + MR + Absence of Defence (AOD) = Conviction

Prosecution’s Forensic Evidence 
The prosecution relied heavily on the autopsy, bloodstains, fingerprints and shoeprints to make its arguments.

(1) Autopsy

Performed by Associate Professor Gilbert Lau (“Professor Lau”) of the Centre of Forensic Medicine of the Health Sciences Authority (“HSA”), the forensic pathologist found the following injuries (amongst others):

(2) Bloodstains

Forensic examination of the bloodstains and DNA analysis was conducted by Dr Tay Ming Kiong (“Dr Tay”) and Ang Hwee Cheng (“Mr Ang”) of the HSA respectively.

(3) Fingerprints and Shoeprints

Fingerprint analysis was conducted by Mohd Yazid bin Abdullah (“Mr Yazid”) while shoeprint analysis was conducted by forensic scientist Chow Yuen San Vickey (“Ms Vickey”).

Acknowledging the accused’s presence at the crime scene, the defence chose to focus on the general defence of intoxication and the partial defences of diminished responsibility and provocation. The defence further contended that the deceased committed suicide.


From the very outset, Justice Tay Yong Kwang (“Tay J”) noted that positive blood swabs matching the accused’s DNA were found at the crime scene. This piece of forensic evidence was pivotal in placing the accused at Block 181 and its vicinity on 1 July 2007. It also proved that the accused had met the deceased.

In light of the damning forensic evidence and the inapplicable defences, Tay J thus convicted the accused of murder and sentenced him to the mandatory death penalty.


[Case Commentary written by Hariharan Ganesan]

*The views and opinions expressed in this article do not constitute legal advice and solely belong to the author and do not reflect the opinions and beliefs of the NUS Criminal Justice Club or its affiliates.


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What is Deception

Deception is commonly defined as the “act of encouraging people to believe information that is not true.” This falsehood generally misleads, hides the truth or promotes a belief concept or idea that is incorrect. Deception is often carried out due to personal gain or advantage over others. Some common examples of deception can include: lying, by stating something known to be untrue with the intent to deceive, omission, by hiding the truth to deceive, or having statements that misrepresent facts and exaggeration of content. With all these avenues where potential deception can occur, the next important question would be the importance of being able to detect deception. Having the skills to differentiate the false from facts is something integral in areas such as police investigations, court trials, border control interviews and intelligence interviews. 

What is interrogation

Alongside deception comes interrogation which is usually referred to as formal or repetitive questioning. This process of questioning is done by the police on someone who is arrested or suspected of a crime. Interrogation techniques are used to pinpoint the truth from details that the subject provides and how the subject reacts to the line of questioning. One of a well-known investigation technique is the Reid Investigation Technique, comprising of 9 steps: initial confrontation, theme development, handling details, overcoming objections, procurement of subject’s attention, handling the subject’s passive mood, presenting an alternative question, developing the details of admission and converting the verbal confession into a written or recorded document. Interrogation is a double-edged sword as, if done improperly, could lead to false confessions. Improper methods of interrogation include: engaging in behaviour that the courts have ruled to be objectionable such as threatening inevitable consequences, making a promise of leniency in return for the confession, denying the subject their rights and conducting an excessively long interrogation.

Theories involved

Fundamentally, telling and detecting truths and/or telling lies are psychologically different.There are both practical and theoretical ways used to detect lies. An example of a theoretical way to detect lies is cue theories. Cue theories is an overarching term which encapsulates and unify the general gist of ideas based on research and theories on deception detection. How truth and lies vary usually differ from theory to theory but some common examples include the emotional states felt when telling the truth and when lying, the amount of arousal in the autonomic nervous system, and the degree of cognitive load or effort naturally involved in message production. As lies require more effort to generate, and are more tiring when trying to maintain the temporal line of events in memory, cue theory states that a lying person will give off behavioural ‘cues’ that signal deception. It is also more difficult to make strategic efforts to appear honest, to conduct message planning and to pretend to have the willingness to be forthcoming. This is because lying creates greater cognitive load (Walczyk, 2013) imposed on the person lying in order to come up with the lie and to maintain the structural integrity of the lie, thus this allows for ways to catch someone and trap them in their lie.

Another common way to tell if someone is lying is to ask them to tell the story backwards or jump around the temporal order of events as liars constructing their own false stories will have a higher difficulty in retelling their story this way as it requires more cognitive processing of details and usually these details will be mixed up and confused when the order of the storytelling is jumbled. Furthermore, psychological states produced by deception are behaviorally signalled by specific observational cues such as non-verbal detection cues, observation of non-verbal behaviour and voice pitch where more highly pitched voices are used when people are lying. These cues are practical ways to detect lying, and help to mediate and explain the relationship between truths-lies and cues. However, the evidence points to divergent conclusions and challenges the validity of cue-based lie-detection (Levine, 2018). In fact, it was also found that when falsifying statements, speakers were less likely to produce the cues that listeners were looking for (Loy, n.d.).


Overall, lie detection has been an important tool to differentiate lies from facts in “police investigations, court trials, border control interviews and intelligence interviews”. Such high-risk points of context sieve out terrorists or people who aim to do harm by asking then standard questions such as what they are going to do, or what will they be using equipment for. Such questions may frighten criminals and cause them to say something suspicious through the slip of their tongue, leading to more suspicion by the security clearance personnel. The availability of such expertise in detecting deception also acts as deterrence towards criminals who are planning criminal activity. A seasoned criminal may know how to get past police interviews pretending to be innocent, yet get called back due to the suspicion of the police.

*The views and opinions expressed in this article do not constitute legal advice and solely belong to the author and do not reflect the opinions and beliefs of the NUS Criminal Justice Club or its affiliates.


International journal of communication. (n.d.). Retrieved 13 April 2022, from

Deception | psychology today singapore. (n.d.). Retrieved 13 April 2022, from

Interrogation. (n.d.). LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 13 April 2022, from

Loy, J. E., Rohde, H., & Corley, M. (n.d.). Cues to lying may be deceptive: Speaker and listener behaviour in an interactive game of deception. Journal of Cognition, 1(1), 42.

Orlando, James (2014) Interrogation techniques. OLR Research Report. Retrieved 13 April 2022, from 

A description of the reid technique | john e. Reid and associates, inc. (n.d.). Retrieved 13 April 2022, from

Levine, Timothy (2018) Scientific Evidence and Cue Theories in Deception Research: Reconciling Findings from Meta-Analyses and Primary Experiments. International Journal of Communication, 12, 2461-2479. Retrieved from


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Forensic entomotoxicology studies the application of toxicological analysis to carrion-feeding insects like blow fly larvae in order to detect drugs and toxins present on intoxicated tissues of decomposing corpses. You may refer to our previous article for an introduction to forensic entomology. This article focuses solely on the use of forensic entomotoxicology.


The gold standard for the detection of drugs/toxins in forensic entomotoxicology is the gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), a destructive method of detections. As such, non-destructive detection methods such as near-infrared spectroscopy are being tested out. Such methods are usually non-destructive, which is a benefit given the small sample sizes available from insects.


While the identification and quantification of drugs from adult insects and pupae are possible, it is usually done on larvae that are actively feeding on the corpse. This is because the rate of absorption of the drugs/toxins should exceed the rate of elimination in order for the drugs/toxins to accumulate in the insects, and such is the case when the insect is actively feeding (the larvae stage).


However, the larval stage might not always be the stage with the most accumulation. For example, in a study done on Lucilia sericata, the highest bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for cadmium was found in the larval stage (in the range of 0.20-0.25), while the puparial stage accumulated more thallium than the other stages tested (BAF in the range of 0.24-0.42). These showed that different bioaccumulation patterns can exist between different substances.


Substances have been detected for various durations postmortem. For example, triazolam, oxazepam, phenobarbital, alimemazin, and clomipramine were detected 67 days postmortem in blowfly larvae recovered from a corpse in a suicide case. (Note that triazolam and oxazepam are currently not registered in Singapore, and that alimemazin is not registered in Singapore or US). Meanwhile, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, arsenic, several organophosphates (e.g. those used in pesticides), mercury, morphine, cocaine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (more commonly known as Ecstasy), were found in maggots and empty puparia up to 5 months after persons had died.


However, not every substance can be detected using insects. For example, heroin metabolites (such as morphine) could only be detected at higher concentrations in mincemeat when fed to Lucilia cuprina (L. cuprina), and could only be found in two of the stages (namely the second and third instars).


Below is a table of medications and substances that have been detected in insects so far: 

Drugs/medications that have been detected so far

Longest duration of detection postmortem known to date


Tricyclic antidepressants: Amitriptyline, Nortriptyline, Clomipramine

5 months for amitriptyline and nortriptyline; 67 days for clomipramine.

Mark Benecke (2014). 


Kintz, P., Godelar, B., Tracqui, A., Mangin, P., Lugnier, A.A., & Chaumont, A. (1990).

Heavy metals: Arsenic, Mercury (>10 μg/g in an empty pupa)

5 months

B Bourel, L Fleurisse, V Hédouin, J C Cailliez, C Creusy, D Gosset, M L Goff (2001).

Drugs of abuse (stimulants): 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, Cocaine

5 months

Mark Benecke (2014).


5 months

Mark Benecke (2014).


5 months

Mark Benecke (2014).

Benzodiazepines: Triazolam, Oxazepam, Diazepam 

67 days for triazolam and oxazepam

5 years for diazepam

Kintz, P., Godelar, B., Tracqui, A., Mangin, P., Lugnier, A.A., & Chaumont, A. (1990).


Grellner W, Glenewinkel F (1997).

Barbiturates: Phenobarbital

67 days

Kintz, P., Godelar, B., Tracqui, A., Mangin, P., Lugnier, A.A., & Chaumont, A. (1990).

Alimemazin (aka Trimeprazine)

Note: not available in many countries including Singapore

67 days

Kintz, P., Godelar, B., Tracqui, A., Mangin, P., Lugnier, A.A., & Chaumont, A. (1990).


PMI changes due to drugs/poisons

Besides detecting drugs and other substances, forensic toxicology can also be used to detect the PMIs. Several medications and substances have been shown to affect the lifespans of insects, resulting in deviations from PMI estimation.


Codeine and cocaine have been shown to increase the development rates of insects. On the other hand, methamphetamine, ethylene glycol (antifreeze), at least two antibiotics, immunosuppressants, and dimethoate (an organophosphate), have been shown to slow the developments of insects.


Mortalities of insects may also be affected. While antibiotics may decrease mortality, other medications/substances such as organophosphates, ethylene glycol, and methamphetamine might increase mortality, in studies done on a single species each.

All these impacts the rate of development of insects and the young which therefore can affect PMI calculations.

Case study

Forensic entomotoxicology is especially important where usual methods of toxicology may not suffice. One example is where the bodies have been burnt. Bugelli presents the case study of maternal filicide-suicide by fire. A mother was found with her two children with their bodies heavily burnt. In order to corroborate the toxicological tests performed on the destroyed remains, larva was found in the bodies of the mother and her two children, which was later analysed for toxins. The larval samples collected from the children were tested positive for several drugs, including benzodiazepines. This led to the conclusion that the mother had drugged her children with sedatives, before killing them and herself.

As there were still some internal tissue and urine samples available for toxicological analysis, the use of forensic entomotoxicology served as a corroborative tool for toxicological analysis supporting the investigation of this case. However, Bugelli suggests that where such samples are not possible, such as in bodies which are even more destroyed or colonised by microfauna, entomotoxicology becomes an important alternative tool for toxicological analysis.

Current limitations in forensic entomotoxicology

As forensic entomotoxicology is a relatively new field, it has many limitations. Examples include: the mechanisms of how different stages of insects metabolise drugs, whether metabolic products of drugs differ between insect species (and humans), whether different species of insects might be affected by a certain substance differently, etc.


In particular, the correlation between human samples and insect samples requires further study before the results of entomotoxicological analysis can be seen as truly valuable. Moreover, the various processes of ingestion (e.g. absorption, metabolism, accumulation of drug) within different insects have not been fully understood. There also lacks a common understanding of what the appropriate interpretation of detected drug concentration should be.

It is also unfortunate that forensic entomotoxicology has not been strongly studied in Singapore. While general studies of common insects have value, it is difficult to use forensic entomotoxicology in forensic investigations or as evidence in court without further research in Singapore. In particular, insufficient research has been done under Singapore’s context (e.g. climate, humidity). Local necrophagous insects have also not received extensive research, rendering forensic entomotoxicology to be of limited use in Singapore.

Additionally, crimes in Singapore tend to be solved within 24-48 hours but forensic entomology is most valuable and useful at least 72 hours after death. This could explain the lack of urgency to develop our talents in this field, as our current forensic investigations are sufficient to meet our needs.

Nonetheless, forensic entomotoxicology is an exciting field of study and its potential utilities should not be disregarded.

*The views and opinions expressed in this article do not constitute legal advice and solely belong to the author and do not reflect the opinions and beliefs of the NUS Criminal Justice Club or its affiliates.


Below is a table of some drugs that may affect insect development and potentially PMI estimation:



Comments on insect development and PMI estimation (if any)

Other notes



Opioids: Codeine, Morphine 

Codeine, Chrysomya albiceps (C. albiceps):

–        Acceleration in the development during life cycle and incomplete emergence of some adult flies from their pupae in the injected group.

–       PMI estimation: inaccuracies of up to 24h when estimation based on larval development and 48h when estimation based on pupal development.



Morphine, Chrysomya stygia (C. stygia):

–       Growth rates of C. stygia fed on morphine-spiked mince did not differ significantly from those fed on control mince for any comparison interval or parameter measured.

Codeine, C albiceps:

–       Morphological changes in the form of disfiguring of segments,

–       loss of colouration and abnormalities in the shape of both anterior and posterior spiracles in the larvae. 

–       The adult flies show rudimentary wings, abnormal bands on the undersurface of the abdomen,fading of normal colour to complete loss of it.

C. albiceps


C. stygia

Fathy H et al (2001).



George KA, Archer MS, Green LM, Conlan XA, Toop T (2009).

Illicit drugs: Methamphetamine, Ketamine, Cocaine 

Methamphetamine, Calliphora vomitoria (C. vomitoria):

–       Methamphetamine produced a significant increase in the developmental time from egg to adult in C. vomitoria. 

–       Approximately 60% of larvae exposed to either dose of methamphetamine died during the pupation period and


Methamphetamine, Aldrichina grahami:

–       The developmental time to reach the pupal instar was statistically slower for the larvae reared on rabbit mince containing MA than for the control;


Ketamine, L. sericata:

–       Significant differences were observed between control and treatment colonies of L. sericata at each life stage, and the effect of ketamine displayed a dosage-and-time-dependent manner.

–       No differences were noticed between the effects of ketamine on larval body length and weight, which provided a useful indication for larvae sample collection in practice.



–        (At   the lethal dose) causes larvae to “develop more rapidly  36  (to  76)  hours  after  hatching”.

–       The  amount  of  growth  depends  on  the concentration  of  cocaine  in  the  area  being fed upon.

Methamphetamine, C vomitoria:

–       The resultant lengths of larvae and pupae were on average significantly larger than the controls.


Methamphetamine, Aldrichina grahami:

–       The mean length of the larvae exposed to MA concentrations was longer than those of the control.

–       The mean weight of the pupae exposed to the highest concentration of MA was significantly lighter than those of the control.


Ketamine, L. sericata:

–       The pathological observation revealed that ketamine could promote the growth of trophocytes in L. sericata.



Methamphetamine: C. vomitoria,

Aldrichina grahami


Ketamine: L. sericata (Meigen)

Magni PA et al (2014).


Shiwen Wang et al (2020).


Yi Zou et al (2013).


–       The decomposition process for the carcasses of rabbits fed alcoholic beverages antemortem was one to two days longer.

–       The results also showed, however, that alcoholic beverages did not affect insect succession patterns in either season.


Various (insect succession patterns)

Mohammed Al-Khalifa et al (2021).

Antibiotics: Ceftriaxone, Levofloxacin

–       Underestimation of PMI by 24-48hrs.

–       Maggot development was delayed by levofloxacin.

–       Pupal development is delayed by ceftriaxone and levofloxacin.

–       Reduced mortalities.


C. vomitoria. (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

Preußer D et al (2021).

Antifreeze (Ethylene glycol)

–       Both species were unable to survive when reared on a food substrate spiked with the highest concentration of EG (T3), while lower and medium concentrations (T1, T2) affected, but not prevented, the survival and the completion of the life cycle of such species. 

–       Adults of L. sericata eclosed only in the control and the lowest concentration, while adults of L. cuprina were able to eclose in the control, the lowest concentration, and the intermediate concentration.

–       The developmental time of both species reared in antifreeze (for those that survived) was statistically slower than the control.

–       The body length of the immatures of both of the species reared in T1 and T2 was statistically smaller than the control.

L. sericata and L. cuprina (Wiedemann).

Pazzi AEM et al (2018).

Immunosuppressants: Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate

–       Cyclophosphamide significantly decreased their developmental rate up to 28h.


–       Methotrexate had no significant impact on development rate.

–       Cyclophosphamide had no significant effect on larval and adult sizes, survival rate, and sex ratio.

–       Methotrexate decreased larval and adult sizes, survival rate, and there was a deviation in the expected sex ratio toward females in MTX-exposed larvae.

Chrysomya megacephala (C. megacephala ) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

Ana Letícia Trivia, Carlos José de Carvalho Pinto (2018).

Organophosphates: Dimethoate, Terbufos, α- and β-endosulfan.


–       Various concentrations of dimethoate (1 ppm, 2 ppm, 3 ppm and 4 ppm) were utilised in the study.

–       The rate of development of the carrion flies showed a negative correlation with the concentration of the chemical.



–       The temporal pattern of larval dispersion was altered.

–       The composition and structure of the colonising assemblage (emerged adults) was also altered.

–       Species’ development time, accelerating or delaying their cycle, depending on the dose used was affected.

–       The emergence rates of califorids and sarcophagids, which increased the mortality of pupae from intoxicated carcasses, was affected.


α- and β-endosulfan:

–       Prevented C. vomitoria immatures reaching the pupal instar and, therefore, the adult instar at high concentrations.

–       Did not affect the developmental time of blowflies at low concentrations.

–       Affected the size of immatures only at high concentrations, resulting in significantly smaller larvae.


Dimethoate: Calliphoridae flies, namely C. megacephala, Chrysomya saffranea, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya indiana.


Terbufos: general.


α- and β-endosulfan: C. vomitoria




Fahd Mohammed Abd Al Galil et al (2021). 


Jales JT et al (2021).


Magni PA et al (2018).

Heavy metals

–       Thallium was also observed to have a negative effect on larval growth, resulting in lower weight and smaller puparial size.


L. sericata

Malejko J et al (2020).


Al-Khalifa M, Mashaly A, Al-Qahtni A (2021). Impacts of antemortem ingestion of alcoholic beverages on insect successional patterns. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28 (1): 685-692.


Anderson, G. S.  (2004).  Forensic  entomology:  The use  of  insects  in death  investigations.


Amendt, J., Richards, C. S., Campobasso, C. P., Zehner, R., & Hall, M. J. (2011). Forensic entomology: Applications and limitations. Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology, 7(4), 379-392.


Benecke M (2014). Arthropoda and Corpses. Forensic Pathology Reviews, Vol. 2, Chapter 10, Pages 207-240.


Benecke, M. (2001). A brief history of forensic entomology. Forensic Science International, 120(1-2), 2-14.


Bourel B, Fleurisse L, Hédouin V, Cailliez JC, Creusy C, Gosset D, Goff ML (2001). Immunohistochemical contribution to the study of morphine metabolism in Calliphoridae larvae and implications in forensic entomotoxicology. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46 (3): 596-9 


Bugelli, V., Papi, L., Fornaro, S., Stefanelli, F., Chericoni, S., Giusiani, M., Vanin, S., & Campobasso, C. P. (2017). Entomotoxicology in burnt bodies: a case of maternal filicide-suicide by fire. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 131(5), 1299–1306.


Byrd, J., & Sutton, L. (2020). Forensic entomology for the investigator. WIREs Forensic Science, 2(4).


Campobasso, C. P., & Introna, F. (2001). The forensic entomologist in the context of the forensic pathologist’s role. Forensic Science International, 120(1-2), 132-139.


Chophi, R., Sharma, S., Sharma, S., & Singh, R. (2019). Forensic entomotoxicology: Current concepts, trends and challenges. Journal of forensic and legal medicine, 67, 28–36.

Essarras A, Pazzi M, Dadour IR, Magni PA (2018). The effect of antifreeze (ethylene glycol) on the survival and the life cycle of two species of necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 58 (2): 85-89.


Fahd Mohammed Abd Al Galil, Sureshchandra Popat Zambare, Fahd A Al-Mekhlafi, Lamya Ahmed Al-Keridis (2021). Effect of dimethoate on the developmental rate of forensic importance Calliphoridae flies. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28 (2): 1267-1271. 

Fathy H et al (2001). Effect of Codeine Phosphate on Developmental Stages of Forensically Important Calliphoride Fly : Chrysomya Albiceps. Mansoura Journal of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology 16(1):41-59. DOI:10.21608/mjfmct.2008.54085

George KA, Archer MS, Green LM, Conlan XA, Toop T (2009). Effect of morphine on the growth rate of Calliphora stygia (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and possible implications for forensic entomology. Forensic Sci Int.,193(1-3):21-5. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.08.013. Epub 2009 Sep 20. PMID: 19773137.


Grellner W, Glenewinkel F (1997). Exhumations: synopsis of morphological and toxicological findings in relation to the postmortem interval. Survey on a 20-year period and review of the literature. Forensic Sci Int., 90(1-2):139-59. doi: 10.1016/s0379-0738(97)00154-0. PMID: 9438373.


Hodecek, J. (2020). Revisiting the concept of entomotoxicology. Forensic Science International: Synergy, 2, 282-286.


Introna, F., Campobasso, C. P., & Goff, M. L. (2001). Entomotoxicology. Forensic Science International, 120(1-2), 42-47.


Ishak, N., Ahmad, A.H., Mohamad Noor, S. et al. Detection of heroin metabolites at different developmental stages of Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) reared in heroin-treated meat: a preliminary analysis. Egypt J Forensic Sci 9, 65 (2019).


Jales JT, Barbosa TM, Soares VP, Gama RA (2021). Effect of Terbufos (Organophosphate) on the Cadaveric Colonization Process: Implications for Postmortem Interval Calculation. Journal of Medical Entomology.


Joseph, I., Mathew, D., Sathyan, P., & Vargheese, G. (2011). The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology. Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, 3(2), 89.


Kintz, P., Godelar, B., Tracqui, A., Mangin, P., Lugnier, A.A., & Chaumont, A. (1990). Fly larvae: a new toxicological method of investigation in forensic medicine. Journal of forensic sciences, 35 1, 204-7.


Magni PA, Pazzi M, Vincenti M, Converso V, Dadour IR (2018). Development and Validation of a Method for the Detection of α- and β-Endosulfan (Organochlorine Insecticide) in Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 55 (1): 51-58.


Malejko, J., Deoniziak, K., Tomczuk, M., Długokencka, J., & Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, B. (2020). Puparial cases as toxicological indicators: Bioaccumulation of cadmium and thallium in the forensically important blowfly Lucilia sericata. Frontiers in Chemistry, 8.


Paola A Magni, Tommaso Pacini, Marco Pazzi, Marco Vincenti, Ian R Dadour (2014). Development of a GC-MS method for methamphetamine detection in Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Forensic Science International, 241: 96-101.


Preußer D, Bröring U, Fischer T, Juretzek T (2021). Effects of antibiotics ceftriaxone and levofloxacin on the growth of Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and effects on the determination of the post-mortem interval. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 81: 102207.


Trivia AL, Carlos José de Carvalho Pinto (2018). Analysis of the Effect of Cyclophosphamide and Methotrexate on Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Journal of Forensic Sciences, 63 (5): 1413-1418.


Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM). (2014, September 3). Blowfly maggots provide physical evidence for forensic cases. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 20, 2021 from


Viero, A., Montisci, M., Pelletti, G., & Vanin, S. (2018). Crime scene and body alterations caused by arthropods: Implications in death investigation. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 133(1), 307-316.


Volckaert, H (2020)  Current Applications and Limitations of Forensic Entomology, Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science: 8(4).


Shiwen Wang, Changquan Zhang, Wei Chen, Lipin Ren, Jiang Ling, Yanjie Shang, Yadong Guo (2020). Effects of Methamphetamine on the Development and Its Determination in Aldrichina grahami (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 57 (3): 691-696.


Yi Zou, Ming Huang, Ruiting Huang, Xinwu Wu, Zhijie You, Jieqiong Lin, Xiaoyan Huang, Xiaoting Qiu, Sheng Zhang (2013). Effect of ketamine on the development of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and preliminary pathological observation of larvae. Forensic Science International, 226 (1): 273-81


Authors’ Bibliography 

Si Min
is a Year 4 Life Science student minoring in forensic science and public health. Her main role as a PM of forensic entomology is to help in the project’s programme planning and to hopefully raise more awareness on the application of forensic entomology in court.

Celine is a recent graduate of NUS pharmacy who is passionate in the fields of forensic toxicology (in all forms, including entomotoxicology) and psychology/psychiatry.

Nicole is currently pursuing a degree in Law and in the middle of her third year of the programme. She is aspiring to be a prosecutor one day, which sparked her interest in all things related to criminal law, including forensic science. 


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On July 24 2013, Dorothy Varallo-Speckeen voluntarily allowed herself to be interviewed, believing that she was helping to solve a child abuse case. However, she was coerced into falsely admitting a crime she had not committed through improper interrogation techniques, which destroyed her reputation in years to come. 

Unfortunately, her case is just one of many in the world. According to the Innocence Project, more than 360 wrongful convictions which were ultimately overturned by DNA evidence involved false confessions. A good portion of false confessions tend to be a result of improper interrogation techniques, showing the importance of having a set of best practices during interrogation. The purpose of a proper interrogation is not just to have criminals admit their involvements in crimes, but also to prevent wrongful charges on the innocent. 

As such, interrogation is one of the most crucial and fundamental components of questioning a suspect. An interrogation usually occurs once reasonable grounds for belief against a suspect have been established.

Image taken from:

Recently, behavioural analysis interviews have been treated globally as an important tool during an interrogation. There is no doubt that confessions are the most powerful pieces of evidence in the court of law, though there might be times where they end up corrupting the quest for truth. This occurs when interrogators have pre-existing presumptions of a person’s guilt and are just looking for confirmation of any sort (e.g. in the case of Dorothy Varallo-Speckeen).

But what does interrogation rely on? For the most part, some valuable and irreplaceable information still comes from face-to-face conversations across a table with interrogators relying on nothing more than intuition, experience, and a grab bag of passed-down methods. John E. Reid & Associates is one of the biggest interrogation trainers in the world, teaching thousands of police officers, intelligence operatives and private investigators every year. Their techniques are mostly based on the experience of the company’s founders, interviews with suspects after interrogations, and what would appear to be common sense. Yet, there are drawbacks in this well-known and widely-practised technique (known as the Reid Technique). 

While movies and TV shows often depict coercive techniques (such as the Reid Technique), the “good cop, bad cop” technique, or even intimidation/force being used in interrogation, such tactics can often increase the likelihood of false confessions. A study by Russano found that while inclusions of maximialisation (confronting with incriminating evidence) and/or minimalisation (down-playing the significance of the crime and allowing excuses for it) can increase the rates of true confessions, it can also increase the likelihoods of false confessions to even greater extents. 

The Reid Technique, which has been described as the gold standard of interrogation in the US, was first introduced in 1974 to replace tactics involving threats, beatings, and torture. It has seen been criticised for the high percentages of false confessions it has produced, as well as its various flaws. This includes  misclassification of a suspect’s truthfulness/deception during the behavioural analysis interview which occurs early on and requires snap judgements in a time of high pressure, coercive methods including psychological manipulation (e.g. implying guilt without evidence multiple times during the interview, deflecting denials or corrections by talking over the suspect, etc), and contamination of confessions with evidence that has not been released to the public. Further, the legalisation of the Reid Technique by the US Supreme Court in the case of Frazier v Cupp further complicates the situation by allowing the presentation of false evidence.

Third degree techniques (such as intimidation and torture) can contribute to fundamental attribution errors by resulting in even more stress, which can corrode endurance and ultimately affect memory and self-certainty. Between 2002 and 2009, with the authorization of officials in the Bush Administration’s White House and the Department of Justice, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and various components of the US Armed Forces launched a plan named ‘Enhanced Interrogation techniques’ or the ‘Enhanced Interrogation’ program. There was a long and detailed finding that waterboarding, extreme sleep deprivation, rectal feeding, wall-slamming and other techniques were not only harmful, but also counterproductive. These techniques constitute torture, cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment – both illegal under US and international law. It is also clear that improper interrogation can result in the serious consequence of not being able to admit the confession obtained during the interrogation process as a piece of evidence. 

As such, it is important to know what techniques are useful and not useful in interrogation. 

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One such method is to allow the suspect/interviewee to be comfortable enough to share information, and build rapport with them. To illustrate this, researchers Laurence Alison and Emily Alison found that the interrogators that played the role of therapists were most likely to have the interviewees volunteer useful information. It should also be noted that people tend to obey perceived authority figures even if it goes against their morals, as seen from the Stanley Milgram studies, which is why making people more comfortable would be better than intimidating them. Environment also plays an important role in this aspect, with themes of openness and warmth making suspects/witnesses more comfortable and willing to open up. 

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A study by Russano et al (2015) found that by being sympathetic and flattering – such as by saying things like “I am sure you are a good person, and no one wants to be accused of cheating or breaking the rules”- but without playing down the seriousness of the offense or its potential punishment (contrary to minimization) could produce more true confessions that way with far fewer false ones. 

Another tactic would be to ask fewer questions. Fisher and Geiselman (1988) found that the more questions asked in an interview, the less likely a witness was to volunteer information, since he will just be waiting for the next question. Therefore, asking fewer questions would allow the interviewer to obtain more details while allowing suspects/witnesses to be more cooperative when confronted with inconsistencies between their statements and the evidence.

These tactics can all be converged in a Cognitive Interview that emphasizes open-ended questions. Here, witnesses are told to report everything they remember regardless of whether they think it is significant, and possibly give a sketch of the crime scene. Interviewers then prompt them by asking them to retell a sequence of events starting at different points or in reverse order or from different vantage points (e.g. from where they were at that moment). This results in a cognitive challenge for a liar but a sharpened recall for someone recounting actual experiences by shifting the context in a way that throws previously unnoticed details into relief. Case on point: a study by Fisher in 2013 showed that Federal Law Enforcement trainees were able to get 80 percent more relevant, accurate information using the Cognitive Interview than the traditional method they taught their students. 

Other interview techniques also include the Preparation and Planning, Engage and Explain, Account, Closure and Evaluate (PEACE) technique and Kinesic Interview. The PEACE technique is used in England and is less confrontational than the Reid Technique.It encourages the building of rapport, active listening, and allows the interviewee to make clarifications after the interviewer has summarized the case. Meanwhile, the Kinesic Interview method involves analyzing a person’s behaviour to assess deception. The method consists of over 30 practical kinesic principles, of which the “first and most important” principle is that “No single kinesic behaviour, verbal or nonverbal, proves a person is truthful or deceptive”. The other principles include both general statements of human behaviour (since it is easier to control verbal than nonverbal kinesic signals) and statements specifically focused on interview or interrogation techniques (e.g to attack a denial, the investigator should review the real or circumstantial evidence with the subject every 3 to 5 minutes). These older techniques can also be used for interrogation. 

In conclusion, many techniques for interrogation exist, with different techniques being used in different countries. While most of those used today have their place in interrogation, it is important to keep up with research on how to most accurately gain truthful confessions which are admissible to court. 

*The views and opinions expressed in this article do not constitute legal advice and solely belong to the author and do not reflect the opinions and beliefs of the NUS Criminal Justice Club or its affiliates.


  1. Alison L and Alison E (2017). Revenge Versus Rapport: Interrogation, Terrorism, and Torture. American Psychologist, Vol. 72, No. 3, 266–277. 
  2. Edward Geiselman, R., Fisher, R.P (1988). The cognitive interview: An innovative technique for questioning witnesses of crime. JPCP 4, 2–5 (1988).
  3. Fisher, R. P., Vrij, A., Leins, D. A. (2013). Does testimonial inconsistency indicate memory inaccuracy and deception? Beliefs, empirical research and theory. In Cooper, B. S., Griesel, D., Ternes, M. (Eds.), Applied issues in investigative interviewing, eyewitness memory, and credibility assessment (pp. 173–190). New York, NY: Springer.
  4. Gehl, R., & Plecas, D. (2017, August 1). Chapter 9: Interviewing, questioning, and interrogation. Introduction to Criminal Investigation Processes Practices and Thinking. Retrieved March 21, 2022, from 
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  6. Horst Law. Horst Law: My Client – My Fight. (n.d.). Retrieved March 21, 2022, from 
  7. Supporters of declassifying the senate … – human rights first. (n.d.). Retrieved March 21, 2022, from 
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  9.  False confessions & recording of custodial interrogations. Innocence Project. (2022, January 11). Retrieved March 21, 2022, from
  10.  Bloomberg. (n.d.). Retrieved March 21, 2022, from 
  11. Duke, M., & Puyvelde, D. V. (2021, December 7). Analysis | ‘enhanced interrogations’ don’t work as well as regular ones. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 21, 2022, from 
  12. Watch), K. J. (I. (2019, February 11). Controversial criminal interrogation technique under fire. Injustice Watch. Retrieved March 21, 2022, from 
  13. Richard Lettieri. (2021, November 18). Forensic psychologist Richard Lettieri on the many pathways to a false confession. CrimeReads. Retrieved March 21, 2022, from
  14. Russano, Melissa & Meissner, Christian & Narchet, Fadia & Kassin, Saul. (2005). Investigating True and False Confessions Within a Novel Experimental Paradigm. Psychological science. 16. 481-6. 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.01560.x.
  15. Vrij, A., Fisher, R., Mann, S. and Leal, S. (2008), A cognitive load approach to lie detection. J. Investig. Psych. Offender Profil., 5: 39-43.

Authors’ biographies 

Celine Cheow is a recent graduate from NUS Pharmacy. Besides toxicology, she is also interested in forensic psychology and psychiatry as well. 

Kexu is currently doing his Master of Science in Forensic Science in NUS, he holds bachelor of law and bachelor of science in Food science & engineering. Before starting his master program, he worked in a leading law firm focusing on M&A, IPO and insolvency.


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Can drugs like cocaine make one turn violent after consumption? In September last year, a man (Andrew Ng Chuan Hock) was sentenced to 5 years’ imprisonment after he assaulted his elderly aunt and  swung a chopper at a healthcare assistant who came to check on his aunt. Investigations revealed that the man had likely consumed drugs at the time of the offence and the psychiatrist who examined him found him to be in a state of drug-induced psychosis at the time of the crime.  


This case is one of many across the world where substance abuse has been at the heart of violent crimes. In this article, we take a closer look at how and why cocaine in particular seems to encourage and perpetuate violent crime. 

Goldstein suggests three main reasons for how cocaine perpetuates violence – (1) systemic violence relating to drug distribution, (2) psychopharmacologically driven crime (a.k.a. drug-induced violent behaviour), and (3) economically compulsive crime (i.e. for money to support drug habit). We’ll focus more on (1) and (2) in this article.

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Systemic violence

Systemic violence has been found in the powder cocaine and crack distribution markets. This refers to violence perpetuated in the process of cocaine distribution, which can be seen as the black market equivalent of economic regulation (since such markets cannot rely on the legal system to enforce their agreements).

Some researchers believe that systemic violence is actually the main contributor to crack-related violent crimes. Such violence usually has one of two purposes – internally to discipline and control distributors along the hierarchy, and externally to protect selling territory for cocaine.

Psychopharmacologically driven crime

How does cocaine affect the brain in the first place?

Cocaine blocks the reuptake of several neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. This creates a build-up of these neurotransmitters in the synapses (spaces between the axons and dendrites of two neurons). Of the neurotransmitters, the effects of dopamine play a particularly significant role in addiction to cocaine. 

While dopamine build-up happens throughout the neurons in the brain, an area of the brain known as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) seems to be particularly affected. Stimulation by dopamine causes neurons in the NAc to produce feelings of pleasure and satisfaction, whereby the amount produced by cocaine exceeds that of those caused by natural biological functions. This causes cocaine to be so addictive as the feelings of pleasure encourage repeated usage. 

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Additionally, cocaine also affects other areas of the brain such as the hippocampus and amygdala, otherwise known as the memory centres. These memory centres help people to remember what led to the feelings of pleasure (corresponding to the release of dopamine in the NAc). As such, when someone experiences a cocaine high, memories of the people, places, intense pleasure and other things associated with the drug-taking are imprinted in the hippocampus and amygdala. As such, returning to those places or even just encountering drug-related objects can already trigger the emotionally-loaded (and pleasurable) memories from previous cocaine uses and a desire to repeat the experience. 

In addition, cocaine also damages the frontal cortex, which is the area of the brain that would normally allow the recognition of negative effects and forgo pleasurable but possibly harmful experiences if necessary. In essence, the frontal cortex is what would enable people to stop taking drugs (or not take them in the first place). However, cocaine damages the frontal cortex of which ultimately damages its inhibitory function in preventing someone from taking cocaine. 


Cocaine can also affect a user’s mood even from the first use. Mood swings can result from frequent use. Since cocaine stimulates the nervous system, there are many symptoms of cocaine usage that contribute to violence – a feeling of invincibility, increased confidence, reduced inhibitions, and higher pain tolerance. Cocaine users are also prone to anxious, agitated, aggressive, and paranoid behaviour. These might be due to the effects of cocaine on the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, all of which are relevant in psychiatric symptoms. 

Cocaine effectively encourages violent behaviour, either as a result of drug use or perpetuated by the user’s own expectation of such effects. 

However, psychopharmacologically driven crime may be the least important explanation for the relationship between cocaine and violent crimes. Studies have not shown cocaine use as a strong or sole cause for violent crimes as a result of psychopharmacological effects. 

Legal ramifications

Around the world, countries such as Portugal had decriminalised the personal use and possession of drugs like cocaine. Singapore, nevertheless, retains a strong stance against drug use and if one is caught with possession, consumption and trafficking of cocaine, there will be major legal ramifications attached, with the most severe consequences reserved for trafficking offences. 

This is because, as the High Court in  Dinesh Singh Bhatia s/o Amarjeet Singh v Public Prosecutor had observed, “withdrawal symptoms [of cocaine usage] were commonplace. It could also cause psychosis in the shape of a feeling of persecution, which might have extremely dangerous consequences.” This is the reason why the High Court was of the opinion that the “usage [of cocaine] cannot be countenanced or tolerated in any measure whatsoever [as] its potency and addictive allure have caused untold misery.” 

As such, the High Court took the position that the “need for deterrent sentencing in connection with cocaine-related offences is both axiomatic and compelling”, given that a “permissive culture of cocaine consumption cannot be allowed to take root in Singapore.” 


Cocaine is classified as a Class A drug in Singapore. Under section 8(b) of the Misuse of Drugs Act (MDA), consumption of any controlled or specific drugs (which includes cocaine) is an offence.  

The punishment for such is harsh as well.
The maximum penalty for engaging in such a behaviour includes 10 years of imprisonment, or a fine of $20,000 or both. Worse, under the MDA, those convicted of trafficking more than 30 grammes of cocaine face the death penalty.  

In conclusion, it is important to understand the serious legal ramifications of drug consumption in Singapore. Regardless of whether an individual is consuming the drugs and remaining within the confines of their home, or going on an assault spree, the law will not compromise its tough stance on drugs. 

*The views and opinions expressed in this article do not constitute legal advice and solely belong to the author and do not reflect the opinions and beliefs of the NUS Criminal Justice Club or its affiliates.

  1. The Relationship between Cocaine and Violence. Life Works. Retrieved January 14, 2022, from 
  2. United States Sentencing Commission. (1995, February). Cocaine & Federal Sentencing Policy.
  3. Carvalho, H. B. D., & Seibel, S. D. (2009). Crack cocaine use and its relationship with violence and HIV. Clinics, 64(9).
  4. Yusof, Z. M. (2020, February 10). Seven Weeks jail for samurai-wannabe for terrifying MRT commuters. The New Paper. Retrieved February 23, 2022, from
  5. Louisa Tang (15 September 2021). Over 5 years’ jail for chopper-wielding man who attacked elderly aunt, healthcare assistant. Today. Last retrieved 29 March 2022 from: Over 5 years’ jail for chopper-wielding man who attacked elderly aunt, healthcare assistant – TODAY 
  6. HBO. 2022. Euphoria | Official Website for the HBO Series | [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 23 February 2022]. 
  7. Eric J Nestler (2005). The Neurobiology of Cocaine Addiction. Sci Pract Perspect., 3(1): 4–10. doi: 10.1151/spp05314
  8. W. Alexander Morton (1999). Cocaine and Psychiatric Symptoms. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry, 1(4): 109–113. 
  9. Zimmerman JL (2012). Cocaine intoxication. Crit Care Clin., 28(4):517-26.
  10. Wong Pei Ting (2 March 2018). Real victims of war against drugs not traffickers, but innocent children: Shanmugam. Last retrieved 25 March 2022 from: 
  11.  Dinesh Singh Bhatia s/o Amarjeet Singh v Public Prosecutor [2005] SGHC 63
  12. Mike Tan and Tiffany Tan (22 January 2020). Counting the Cost: Drug Abuse and Drug Crime in Singapore. Ministry of Home Affairs. Last retrieved 2 March 2022 from:
  13. Central Narcotics Bureau (7 June 2021). New Release. Last retrieved 2 March 2022 from: 
  14. Psychology Today (25 October 2021). Cocaine Use Disorder. Last retrieved 2 March 2022 from: 

Author’s Biography

Nicole Teo is currently pursuing a degree in Law and in the middle of her second year of the programme. She is aspiring to be a prosecutor one day, which sparked her interest in all things related to criminal law, including forensic science

Yangyang is currently a freshman pursuing a degree in law. He has a strong interest in all aspects of crime, including both the criminal law and the forensic elements. 

Edited by: Celine Cheow and Cherylynn Tan


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Rape Drugs: An Introduction

What are in your drinks? The use of rape drugs to faciliate the commission of sexual offences has been something that is of a growing concern to countries in the Asian region lately. For one, Japan has recently experienced a surge in drug-related date rape while Hong Kong has recommended stiffer penalites for traffickers of a common date rape drug than that of traffickers of cannabis. Even locally, an Indian national had once spiked his flatmate’s drink with the plan of raping her afterwards while she was asleep. While it was fortitous that the victim had spat out the contaminated water after realising that it tasted bitter, the prevelance of the use of rape drugs is not something that should be taken lightly.

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Types of Common Rape Drugs

Any substance given to someone with the effect of lowering sexual inhibition and enhance the possibility of unwanted sexual intercourse can be used as a date rape drug. The most common types of date rape drugs used are Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and Rohypnol. These drugs are commonly mixed with alcohol and given to victims. Victims often lose consciousness and/or have their awareness of the surroundings drast

How Do Rape Drugs Affect Our Bodies?

Rape drugs works because they have chemicals in them that react with specific binding sites in the central nervous system (CNS). When a molecule binds to the site, the cells are able to take in the molecule and metabolise it, producing certain effects. The chemicals in rape drugs are similarly received via receptor sites that are able to recognise the shape of the molecules, and once this happens, the drug takes effect by depressing the action of the CNS, leaving victims with the common symptoms such as unconsciousness and a significantly reduced awareness of their surroundings. Details of some of the common drugs used to spike drinks are described shown below.

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Rohypnol, also known as Flunitrazepam, can take effect as soon as 30 minutes after ingestion. It is also relatively inexpensive and thus easy to obtain. Rohypnol belongs to a class called benzodiazepines, which bind to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A) receptors that are responsible for most of the inhibitory neurotransmission in the CNS resulting in effects such as sedation and relaxation. People who have ingested Rohypnol become heavily sedated and can fall unconscious, thus allowing them to become easy pickings for predators. The effects of the drug can last up to 8 hours, and victims often are unable to recall their experiences while the drug is in effect.

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Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, or GHB for short, is a central nervous system ((CNS) depressant. It can be found naturally in mammals, and acts on both GHB-specific receptors and GABA-B receptors to relax the CNS through inhibitions of various mechanisms. GHB might also affect other neurotransmitter systems, such as the opioids, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, and acetylcholine systems. It often comes in the form of a highly soluble sodium salt that can be ingested orally, either as a liquid or powder. The substance is commonly added to alcoholic beverages, and once ingested, can greatly enhance the effects of alcohol consumption, rendering the victim unconscious. The effects of GHB-induced sleep can last up to 5 hours, during which the victim might not awaken, making them vulnerable to assault. In addition, GHB is rapidly metabolised in the body, making it difficult to detect traces of the drug in the victim’s system if the crime is reported too late.

How do you know if your drink is spiked?

Unfortunately, it can be quite difficult to detect if your drink is spiked. Most drugs used to spike alcoholic drinks are tasteless, colourless and odourless. Furthermore, a spiked drink could take 15-30 minutes before it shows any effect, but these effects could last for several hours. GHB interferes with GABAergic neurotransmission and this drug can be considered a GABA-B agonist. The neurons that release GABA are mostly localised in the hippocampus, cortex and amygdala. GHB receptors are located in these sites, in pre- and post-synaptic cells and show high affinity for these G-protein coupled receptors.

Some common symptoms of drink spiking are:
– Unusual drunkenness after drinking the same amount
– Blurred vision
– Dizziness, confusion
– Nausea and/or vomiting
– Difficulty breathing
– Muscle spasms or seizures
– Speech difficulties and slurring
– Hallucinations
– Tiredness
– Loss of consciousness
– An unusually long hangover
– A severe hangover when you did not drink alcohol
– Having gaps in your memory about what happened the previous night

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Legal Ramifications 

If rape has indeed been committed, the accused can be liable for rape under Section 375 of the Penal Code. Rape is made out when a man who penetrates the vagina of a woman (or the anus or mouth of another person) with his penis, without the latter’s consent. The punishment for rape is severe – if found guilty, an accused may be punished with an imprisonment for a term of up to 20 years, and shall also be liable to fine or to caning.

Pertinently, the usage of date rape drugs to facilitate the commision of rape may be seen as an aggrevating factor by the courts, and such will be work against the accused’s favour during the sentencing stage. In the case of Public Prosecutor v Azuar bin Ahamad [2014] SGHC 149, the accused had spiked the alcoholic drinks of all four of his victims before committing rape on them. The accused had drugged his victims with Dormicum, a prescription drug frequently used to induce sleep, which caused the victims to lose consciousness. The High Court considered two aggravating factors. One, the court found that the offence was premeditated given that the accused spiked the victims’ drinks. Second, the High Court found the victims to be in a vulnerable state as they were unconscious when he committed the assaults. Taking these two factors into consideration, the court ultimately sentenced the accused to 37.5 years of imprisonment, and the statutory-maximum 24 strokes of the cane.

That said, even if no actual rape or sexual offence has been committed, the accused may still be liable under the law, for his act of spiking the victim’s drink. Recall that in the introduction article, we mentioned a case involving an Indian national, who spiked his flatmate’s drink, with the intention of raping her afterwards. While no sexual assault had been committed on the victim (because she spat out the water), the accused was nonetheless sentenced to 2 years and 10 months imprisonment and three strokes of the cane. This is because Section 328 of the Penal Code provides that it is an offence to administer poison or any stupefying or intoxicating substance on another person, with the intention of causing hurt to such person, or with the intention to facilitate the commission of an offence which the accused knows is likely to cause hurt. The punishment for such an offence is that of an imprisonment term which may extend to 10 years, coupled with a fine or caning.

Finally, it is noteworthy to point out that many commonly used date rape drugs, including GHB and Rohypnol, are also listed as controlled drugs under the Misuse of Drugs Act (“MDA”). Under which, the mere possession of such drugs will cause one to be liable for an offence under the MDA, and the punishment for which involves an imprisonment term of up to 10 years, or a fine of $20,000, or both.


Date rape drugs are most certainly dangerous. Nonetheless, there are some suggested precautions that we can take to avoid falling victim to drink spiking. These include never accepting drinks from strangers, not leaving your drinks unattended, and throwing away the drink immediately if you find that it tastes odd. 

Additionally, if you suspect that you are a victim of drink spiking or sexual assault, do also reach out to your trusted friends and family for help, and contact the police for assistance. If required, do not hesitate to seek medical attention at a medical facility. There are also resources that you might want to consider approaching for help, if for instance, you require someone to listen to your concerns – and this includes AWARE’s Sexual Assault Care Centre (SACC) (telephone: 6779 0282; email: [email protected]).

Always remember: rape (or drink spiking) is never the victim’s fault – it is the result of the perpetrator’s choices and if found guilty, he will be severely punished for his actions.

*The views and opinions expressed in this article do not constitute legal advice and solely belong to the author and do not reflect the opinions and beliefs of the NUS Criminal Justice Club or its affiliates.

  1. Association of Women for Action and Research (2002). Date Rape: What is “Date Rape”? Last retrieved 22 March 2022 from:
  2. Bashforth, E. (2021, November 11). How to tell if a drink has been spiked. Retrieved January 8, 2022, from
  3. Christy Leung (8 January 2022). Hong Kong judges recommend harsher sentencing guidelines for traffickers of date rape drug than for cannabis culprits. South China Morning Post. Last retrieved 22 March 2022 from:
  4. Drink spiking in teenagers and how to avoid it. (n.d.). Positive Choices. Retrieved January 8, 2022, from
  5. Girard, A. L., & Senn, C. Y. (2008, January 1). The Role of the New “Date Rape Drugs” in Attributions About Date Rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(1), 3-20.
  6. Jalelah Abu Baker (6 June 2018). Man who spiked flatmate’s drink sentenced to jail, caning. Channel News Asia. Last retrieved 22 March 2022 from:
  7. Johnson, H. (2021, November 1). Signs you’ve been spiked by drink or injection, how you feel – and what to do. NationalWorld. Retrieved January 8, 2022, from
  8. Nicholson, K. L., & Balster, R. L. (2001, June 1). GHB: a new and novel drug of abuse. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 63(1), 1-22. 10.1016/s0376-8716(00)00191-5
  9. Schwartz, R. H., & Weaver, A. B. (1998, May 1). Rohypnol, The Date Rape Drug. SAGE Journals, 37(5), 321.
  10. Singapore Legal Advice. (2020, October 21). Date Rape: What to Do If Your Drink Has Been Unlawfully Spiked? Retrieved January 8, 2022, from
  11. Ted O’Connell, Lily Kaye, and John J. Plosay III (2000). Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB): A Newer Drug of Abuse. Am Fam Physician.;62(11):2478-2482. 
  12. The Yomiuri Shimbun (7 March 2022). Japan records surge in drug-related date rape. The Japan News. Last retrieved 22 March 2022 from:

Authors’ Biography

Koon Ka Yiu Winnie is a Year 2 undergraduate from the Faculty of Science. She is pursuing a major in Chemistry and a minor in Forensic Science. She works in CJC-F’s Forensic Toxicology project. She is interested in the applications of chemistry in forensic science investigations. 


Lim Wei En, Wayne is a Year 1 undergraduate from the Faculty of Law. When not doing dreadful law-related work, Wayne spends his time playing frisbee, or binge watching entire seasons of K-drama on Netflix.

Wong Wai Xin is a Year 2 undergraduate from the Faculty of Science, pursuing a major in Chemistry. She is interested in the applications of chemistry and hopes to be able to educate and encourage students to gain interests in similar areas in future. Science can get pretty taxing, and she prefers to take time off when possible by reading and scribbling, on occasion. 

Edited by: Celine Cheow and Cherylynn Tan


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Legal limits of drink-driving 

Many people are aware that there is a  legal limit to how much alcohol we can have in our blood while driving – think roadblocks and breathalysers. But what exactly is the legal limit and why is it at this level?

There are broadly two ways  of measuring alcohol content – by taking the amount per 100ml of breath or  per 100ml of blood. The legal limit per 100ml of breath is 35 micrograms of alcohol, while the legal limit per 100ml of blood is 80 milligrams of alcohol. These limits, above which, typically correspond to some observable detrimental effects of alcohol on human cognitive function. 

How is blood alcohol concentration (also known as BAC) calculated? 

BAC is a measurement of the amount  of alcohol in a person’s bloodstream. As alcohol is able to impair a person’s cognitive and psychomotor functions, knowing BAC can help infer the mental capacity  of a person at a specific time of interest. There are several factors affecting BAC, including one’s body size, physical conditions (including liver impairment and genetic polymorphisms), gender, age, the food consumed that day, type of alcohol, and amount of alcohol consumed (based on the volume of drinks and the percentage alcohol). These affect alcohol absorption and distribution in the body. As BAC increases, the level of alcohol-related impairment that one would experience expectedly increases. While the legal limit is set at a BAC level of 0.08%, at lower values there would also be effects which can impair one’s judgement. 

While there are legal limits to both blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and breath alcohol for drivers on the road ,breath alcohol has a higher tendency of being affected by external factors.

In some cases, BAC might not be taken immediately at the time  the offence of drink driving was committed. Thankfully, the BAC at the time of the offence can be estimated via two ways: (1) by multiplying the rate of alcohol metabolism with the duration between the time of offence and the time which the BAC was measured, and then adding that to the BAC that was measured; or (2) by multiplying the rate of alcohol metabolism with the duration between the time the alcohol was drunk and the time the offence was committed, and then deducting that from the calculated amount of alcohol drunk (this second method is only useful if the type(s) and amount(s) of alcohol the person had consumed is known). 

In general, the rate of alcohol metabolism is nearly consistent at around 0.016% per hour after  the person stops drinking. While there may be factors affecting alcohol metabolism such as eating before drinking, the increase in alcohol metabolism is marginal. As such, the BAC level at that time of interest can be calculated from a known BAC level based on the time passed even if it was not taken immediately at the time of the offence. Note that alcohol metabolism and alcohol absorption are different concepts. The rate of alcohol absorption can also affect the BAC level.


How BAC is affected 



Drinking the same amount of alcohol will result in a higher BAC level for an older person than a younger person.

Older age can decrease the percentage of water in the body.This can decrease the volume of distribution of alcohol since alcohol is hydrophilic (water-loving) which in turn increases BAC. 

Body size

Higher BAC level for people with low body weight. 

People with low body weight will have less water in the body as well. This decreases volume of distribution of alcohol, increasing BAC


Higher BAC if one was drinking on an empty stomach.

Drinking on an empty stomach will result in rapid gastric emptying and results in a faster absorption of alcohol into the blood

Type of alcohol

Higher BAC for drinks with higher ethanol content and for drinks with carbon dioxide content

Higher ethanol content and presence of carbon dioxide in drinks will increase absorption rate, leading to higher BAC levels

Alcohol percentage in drinks (%) by alcohol by volume (ABV)











Fortified wine




Unfortified wine


BAC can be calculated using the Widmark equation: 

BAC= [Alcohol consumed (g) x 100]/[body weight (g) x r]

The values of r are often taken to be  0.55 for females and 0.68 for males. This is due to the different percentages of water in males and females, with females having a lower percentage of water in their bodies. However, it is important to note that typical Widmark calculations may overestimate the BAC levels for heavy drinkers due to tolerance. and would be more reliable at lower alcohol consumption levels due to saturable metabolism kinetics. 


This graph shows the BAC level of a male in a controlled drinking experiment (0.8g/kg ethanol on an empty stomach over 20-30 minutes).

In forensic science, the following equation is often relevant in calculating one’s BAC a certain number of hours after starting to drink, known as BACt.  BACt=[ethanol consumed/(body weight x Vd)]-(βt), where β is the zero-order elimination rate from blood per hour for t hours since drinking started. Vd refers to the volume of distribution of alcohol in this equation, which is related to percentage of water in the body since ethanol is dissolved in water rather than other biological substances (e.g. fats). A higher Vd due to higher percentage of water in the body means that the BAC would be lower if the other factors are the same as someone with a lower Vd. 

Why is there a legal limit for alcohol when driving?

The extent to which a person’s cognitive and psychomotor functions is impaired by alchol depends on the BAC level. At a BAC level of 0.02%, there would be a decline in a person’s ability to track moving objects and to multitask. At a BAC level of 0.05%, there would be additional reduced coordination and response time to emergencies and difficulty steering. At 0.08%, one would experience a decline in ability to process information, lack of speed control, reduced concentration, short-term memory loss and impaired perception. At higher levels, some effects include impaired vehicle control, dysphoria predominates and loss of consciousness. 

Based on research, scientists determined that our coordination is noticeably impaired at a leve of 0.08%l. For instance, having a BAC over 0.08% impairs our ability to accurately retrieve  signals from our brains – to either our hands on the steering wheel or our feet on the brake pedal. 

In some cases, the defendant’s claims may be different from the evidence present. For example, a driver is stopped by the police after a social gathering and gives a positive breathalyser test. However, he claims that he did not consume alcohol and only consumed iced coffee. Eventually, it was found that the coffee was laced with Brandy. This is where a forensic toxicologist would come in. Forensic toxicologists can analyse biological specimens and determine alcohol and/or drug involvement in intoxication, suspected driving under the influence (DUI) and drug-facilitated crimes (e.g. rape, theft). They would be able to find and analyse the forensic evidence and come up with appropriate expert opinions on the case. 

Legal Consequences 

Under s 67 of the Road Traffic Act (RTA), a person is guilty of drink driving if he (1) is incapable of having proper control of the vehicle, or (2) has a blood alcohol level that exceeds the legal alcohol limit. This means that while BAC is relevant, even persons below the limit can be charged with drink driving if they are found to not have control over their vehicle.

Moreover, although an accused person’s alcohol content may be taken a substantial time after the offence, s 71 of the RTA states that the accused is presumed to have no less BAC than the specimen at the time of the offence. This presumption can be rebutted if the accused proves that he drank alcohol after driving without which he would have proper control of the vehicle or would not exceed the legal limit.

The RTA states that a fine between $2,000 – $10,000 (for first-time offenders) and/or an imprisonment term up to 2 years may be imposed for a drink-driving offence under s 67. There is also a mandatory disqualification period.

Given that higher BAC has more severe effects on the drinker and is therefore more dangerous, it is no wonder that the alcohol content level plays a part in sentencing considerations.  Under the amended RTA, the High Court held that the indicative range of fines and disqualification period would be as follows:

Level of alcohol (μg per 100ml of breath)

Range of fines

Range of disqualification



24–30 months



30–36 months



36–48 months

≥ 90


48–60 months (or longer)

As seen, the higher the BAC, the higher the level of culpability of an offender and therefore, the harsher the sentence. 

Nonetheless, there are two important things about this framework. Firstly,  this framework only applies to cases whereby no harm to person or property has eventuated. Secondly, the sentencing range provided in the framework are only neutral starting points. The court will also consider aggravating or mitigating circumstances relevant to the facts of each case, and a jail term could well be imposed if the former is present. 

Long story short, avoid drinking and driving! If you’re going out to drink, take a taxi or have a designated driver in place. No one’s life is worth the risk, and fines, disqualification and possibly imprisonment certainly aren’t worth it either.

*The views and opinions expressed in this article do not constitute legal advice and solely belong to the author and do not reflect the opinions and beliefs of the NUS Criminal Justice Club or its affiliates.

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Author’s Biography

Nicole Teo is currently pursuing a degree in Law and in the middle of her second year of the programme. She is aspiring to be a prosecutor one day, which sparked her interest in all things related to criminal law, including forensic science. 

Ellione is a Year 2 Chemical Engineering student pursuing a minor in Forensic Science. She has a great  interest in toxicology and hence joined the Forensic Toxicology project to learn and understand more about how toxicology can be used in the law. As a project manager for Forensic Pathology as well, she works with her team to increase awareness and interest in this aspect.

Edited by: Celine Cheow and Cherylynn Tan